Brushless Motors, Motor Kits, Hub Motors– How to choose electric skateboard?3 months, 3 weeks ago | 3 Replies
The main component of any electric board is the motor. You should plan your entire build around your motor. You have to think about how fast you want to go and how far you intend to go. You must consider whether you still want to be able to push your board freely or have the ability to climb a mountain.Brushless Motors, Motor Kits, Hub Motors. Any motor you’ll need to build any DIY Electric Skateboard.
The hub motor is exactly the same motor as you read; They are electric motors that act as the hub (usually the rear wheel) of a wheel. When they spin, the wheel spins. They require no other moving parts, produce almost no detectable noise, and come in a variety of different fixed-speed configurations. If you are confident and have a bulletproof battery and an ESC case, you can even enter a skateboard park and ride like a regular skateboard. Since hub motors only use sleeves as wheels, the types of wheels you can purchase are limited. However, replacement sleeves are easy to find, and new styles are coming out all the time. In addition to being silent, a unique feature of the hub motor is that if the battery dies, it will still push your circuit board properly. Depending on your motor configuration, you can even charge the battery this way.
Belt Drive Motors
The belt-drive motor has a brushless motor with a pulley on top that is connected via a belt to a larger pulley on the wheels. Belt drives provide you with a variety of replaceable gear ratios, high torque and speed options. If you live in hilly areas or plan to use a mix of road and off-road, these can make excellent engines. Some DIY all-terrain riders convert their belt drive to a chain drive to improve durability. You can run them as single-motor or dual-motor configurations. They also tend to have a lot of moving parts that need to be adjusted and may vibrate loose or move unevenly. Depending on your setup, the torque output from these little monster motors may require adjusting the motor bracket, belt and motor during and after a hard ride. But when dialing, the power will put a smile on your face. Aside from the high torque curve, the really best part about belt drives is that you can adjust any system for use on almost any skateboard truck, any skateboard wheel, or all terrain wheels that can be mounted with pulleys. The online community is huge, and if you need help and don’t have crazy questions that aren’t welcome, there’s plenty of support.
Direct drives provide the best performance of hub and belt drives because they have the high torque and high speed of a belt-drive motor, direct input to the hub motor, and therefore no belt, mounting seat or pulley. Acceleration is 100% adjustable and, like a belt drive, all power is transferred directly to the wheels. In addition to all the direct power, these motors tend to lose heat quickly, so running at higher speeds for longer periods of time makes them ideal for uphill racers. With these motors, you get the perfect combination of ease of use, fast acceleration and balanced power control. Best of all, you can use any skateboard wheel that can be fitted with an adapter, including all-terrain wheels and push-kicks, when you’re too stupid to recharge the battery at the last stop. Of course, there is no perfect motor for all situations, and direct drives have their drawbacks. Direct drive motors are large. Their relative size keeps them very low to the ground and vulnerable to damage from debris. Their jars are not bulletproof and even a small stone can cause damage. Riders who use pneumatic wheels on streets and off-road will benefit greatly from direct drive. For the brave souls who want to feel the power and run at low speeds on polyurethane street wheels, you’ll need to start learning how to sculpt and weave quickly.
Gear drives may seem new, but DIY Gear Head has been experimenting with gear drive systems for years. In most cases, gear drive systems are small, complex, closed, fixed gear systems with the best features of all of the above. You can change wheels at any time without a belt, and the torque of the belt drive is all in a compact system with enough room to tear apart mountains and cityscapes. Most of these systems are incredibly responsive and compact. Some incredible DIY all-terrain racing gear even has a variable transmission, but for the most part, you’ll find that a fixed transmission system is the norm. The biggest drawbacks of this system are gear noise that can be deafening to the most sensitive people (just annoying to the rest of us), complexity and expense. For many DIY manufacturers, these can be very expensive integrated drivetrain systems. But if you can afford it, it’s worth it. If you are a serious off-road driver and are in desperate need of a high-speed sealing system, then this may be the motor/driveline combination for you.
Eskate manufacturers and motor manufacturers always throw out specifications; They are size, Kv and watt.
The four digits of the motor indicate the dimensions of the motor. For example, the motor sample in the photo is 6384, which means the diameter is 63mm and the length is 84mm. This usually refers to the external dimensions of the motor can itself; However, minor changes may occur due to the design of the cans.
Logic might dictate that a larger can size usually means a more powerful motor. However, the strength of the motor can come from a variety of factors, such as the internal construction method, the type and shape of the magnets used, the air gap between the stator and the housing, and the size of the stator itself.
It is usually a good idea to ask the manufacturer for the size of the actual stator itself rather than the size of the motor can, as this number in combination with the motor size gives a better indication of the motor power.
KV is the number of revolutions per minute (RPM) of the motor when 1 volt is applied. That is, we allow the motor to rotate freely without load. This means that the higher the KV, the faster the motor rotates. However, all other factors being equal, a higher KV also means a lower torque output.
Common KV ratings for electric slide external rotor motors range from 140kV to 220kV. This is different for hub motors; However, the hub motor has no pulley and gear reducer to achieve final speed and torque. Therefore, they usually require much lower kV (80-100kV) to maintain comparable torque.
Lower KV — higher torque, lower top speed
Higher KV – Lower torque, higher top speed
As we learned in high school, power is measured in watts. Watts are measured in terms of voltage x ampere. If you have a high wattage motor, this means that it can handle more voltage and/or amperes, which in turn means that it can have greater torque or run faster.
In the world of electric skateboards, motor power can vary widely. A simple hub motor can only have 250W or 350W of power each, but still works fine. Ention’s R-Spec Ghost, on the other hand, is the most powerful hub motor on the market, with a power of 1680W per motor. (And it drains batteries like nobody cares)
Outer rotor motors tend to have higher power. The motors in the production belt-driven Eskate are usually around 600W each (Wowgo 3X) and those with AT wheels around 1500W (OWNBOARD AT).
For DIY, you can get 1000W to 4000W motors.
Each motor has a maximum current that it can pull. For example, 50A. You must ensure that the maximum ESC output is higher than the maximum current consumption of the motor by a small margin (5%). If the current of the motor is higher than the ESC can provide, the ESC may be burned. Cutting too close can also impair the life of the ESC.
Therefore, if your motor can consume 50A each (100A total), please make sure that ESC can support at least 5% above 100A, i.e. 5% above 100A, i.e. at least 105A. If you are using VESC and can set current limits, be wise and ensure that you do not both exceed the maximum motor current limit (which can kill the motor) or the maximum limit of VESC (which can kill the VESC).
Each motor specification will tell you what voltage the motor supports. However, in general, the voltage of the motor is not important, as they usually support a very wide voltage range – between 3 seconds to 12 seconds (4.8V-43.2V). (If you don’t know the battery specs, check out my comprehensive battery guide.)
Inductive VS non-inductive motors
Some motors have sensor cables; Some don’t.
The motor with the sensor allows the motor to always detect the position of the motor for a smoother start. Non-induction motors, on the other hand, are usually very unstable when started from a rest state and usually require a hard push to start smoothly.
Today, almost every production board you can buy comes with an induction motor. And there’s no reason to get a non-inductive motor. By the way, if you choose not to plug in the sensor cable, the motor with the sensor can still work as a sensorless motor.